Essay in Testimony, Towards the Design of a Heterogeneous Built Environment



1)Functionalismic Architectural Planning and Computational Design

PO often involves optimisation methods based on the performance of the built environment engineering and, specifically, its performance. In principle, this is the process of finding a design that satisfies the various performance requirements of a room's use while checking its approximate performance through simulation. As already mentioned in multiple places, the unification of computing platforms and improvements in computing speed have made it possible to try out many individual designs and to use mathematical optimisation techniques to arrive at a design that performs better. (For more information, see the article.)

To return to the topic briefly, optimisation requires its target values. For most indicators, the performance needed for a behaviour or action is defined in a reductionist manner from the approaches of architectural science, especially building planning and environmental engineering. Since the subject is human beings, this is not only within the scope of architectural science but also from other disciplines such as physiology, sociology, etc., where reference references will be gathered. Indicators such as required or target illuminance, for example, exist in architectural standards such as ASHREI, as well as in the Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS). (link as an example)

Simply put, this is part of functionalist architectural planning. The author intended to use it in his doctoral thesis at an early stage (around 2010), but it had already been used for structural optimisation, especially in architecture. As it is often used in engineering, it is also compatible with mathematics because it is easy to clearly define what is good or bad.

1)機能主義的な建築計画 と コンピューテーショナルデザイン




2) Awareness in the course of work

The following is a typical procedure of the various performance-based design optimisation workflows often requested by the aforementioned POs. Basically, it is assumed that the client is the design architect and that most of the required area and floor plans have already been determined.

0)The designer (client) comes with a concept design + α plan
1) Hear the design intent and plan of the plan/elevation carefully
2) Assume the performance of the room/area and reduce it to a number.
3) Predict the given conditions (e.g. weather) for each season and period
4) Divide cases and modify them according to the given conditions
5) Calculate the scores for each case.
6) Evaluate to meet the design intent (e.g. average, absolute).

It has taken me years of hard work to create this flow because I am doing work that does not exist in the world, but because I created it myself, I continue to question myself about the various figures and the methods themselves. When I stop, I wonder if this is the right thing to do.

   For example, around steps 0)  and 1) in the early stages, the designer decides on the room's use and writes the room's name. This is not a criticism of our work, but naming the room and binding the user's actions does not fit reality. For functions with equipment such as 'Stairs', 'Toilets' or 'Kitchens', they do exactly what they are supposed to do, but do all people hold meetings in 'Meeting rooms'? First of all, there needs to be something more natural about this congruent approach. Some places symbolise this incongruity and show a trial-and-error approach to conformity to reality. On the contrary, 'Office' and 'Living room' are more defeated by language; we need to know what room it is. Rooms with no defined function for what they do are given names that make no sense for such a function.






Around steps 2 and 3, the performance of the space for the activity (could be, say, action or behaviour) is assigned. From the feeling in practice, open plans are becoming increasingly common*. In an office, until a few decades ago, it was assumed to be for paperwork, but now it is mainly for computers. First, this needs to be clarified for such open-plan, generic room applications.

Next is the correspondence between space and function. For example, how about the living room in a house? One can imagine a bright living room, while others may be dark. Some people read newspapers in the living room, and others drink whisky. In other words, one space does not correspond to one human activity. Yes, there is a space demanded by each, but is it predictable?

Not surprisingly, As this is not possible in principle, they have responded by improving the adaptability of the built environment engineering performance of the space by using smaller semi-devices, such as louvres, blinds, curtains and partitions, instead of architecture, and by allowing them to be manipulated by the human user.

*1; As for post-pandemic, physical walls may be deliberately left in place as a design as a method of air hygiene.

*2; Backlighting of computer LCD screens and keyboards may come up for discussion, and many geeks are particular about the brightness and nits of their smartphones.






   Even around steps 3) and 4), many things could be improved. The country/region and climate issues, how and when to divide the seasons, and how to divide the day and night plans depend on spoon-feeding. For example, when working in Japan, many summer and winter values are reversed, and another issue today is the intermediate season. While it may still be possible to fully-air-conditioned high-rises, there are increasing demands for natural ventilation and other support due to urban energy issues, peak power in summer, climate change and the thermal environment in the event of a disaster.

   Around step 6), it depends on the resolution at which the scene is divided. If you want to divide the scene into very rough segments, you can divide it into day and night or summer and winter. However, some countries do not have seasons. If the resolution is gradually increased, the average temperature and rainfall per month/12 months are often used to show the characteristics of a place. However, this does not pick up time-varying phenomena such as brightness, which would be hourly. However, to be more realistic, humans do not live like a geyser every hour.

The above has been written at length and will be reviewed again with the key words. If we consider a plan that accounts for human action based on the built environment, the approach is rough, and people have intelligence. The next question is how much time and spatial design resolution to set. If you are a human being reading this, you will understand that in five seconds a person can be thinking about something else and doing something else.